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men, and that having thus seen in a manner with our eyes what we
cannot see for ourselves, their conclusions are such as bear on our
own circumstances."* Consequently, while paying close attention
to the linguistic side of the classics and making them a basis for
the study of the general principles of grammar and an aid to the
accurate and forceful use of the mother tongue, he was specially
careful to connect what was read with the social and political
problems of the modern world. With the same end in view he
attached great importance to the study of ancient history and
geography. There was nothing new about this : it was simply a
revival of the Renaissance ideals, which was essential if the classics
were to continue a vital element in the education of humanity in
an age that had outgrown the Renaissance, So far as there was
novelty in his educational views it was in regard to the function
of schools such as Rugby in a system of national education. In
his opinion, at least three grades of schools were necessary,
corresponding broadly to the three main social groups constituting
the nation. The elementary schools for the lower classes and the
secondary schools for the middle classes he would have under the
control of the State, but the endowed schools for the upper classes
he would leave free self-governing institutions, each working on its
own lines under the general supervision and encouragement of the
central educational authority. This idea of self-goverment,
applied to the school organization as a unit, and to the school as
a community of boys largely regulating their own lives, was the
permanent contribution made by him to the educational thought
not only of England but of the world. By means of it a place was
found for individuality in a school system based on authority and
tradition, and presumably, therefore, in any school system.


ARNOLD, THOMAS: J. J. Findlay, Arnold of Rugby, Cambridge, 1897;
Sir Joshua Fitch, Thomas and Matthew Arnold, London, 1897; A. P. Stanley,
IJfe and Correspondence ^twelfth edition), London, 1881.

FICHTE, J, G. :   Addresses to the German Nation, translated by R. H. Jones
and G. H. Turnbull, Liverpool, 1922 ;  G. H. Turnbull, The Educational
Theory ofFichte, London, 1926.
Paul Duproix, Kant et Fichte et le Probleme de VEducation, Paris,  1897.

FROEBEL, F.: Autobiography (London, 1886) and Letters on the Kindergarten
(London, 1890), translated by E. Michaelis and H. K. Moore ; The
Education of Man (New York, 1894), translated by W. N. Hailmann;

*   Fitch, Thomas and Matthew Arnoldt p. 35.